Leukemias

Forms of Leukemia

The most commonly diagnosed types and subtypes of leukemia (as well as some rare forms) and many of the possible treatments are included in this table. Discuss your options with your health care team.

 

Cancer type Description Treatment

Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia (ALL)

• Abnormal lymphoblasts
  develop quickly and block
  the production of normal
  bone marrow cells
• Chemotherapy: asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi
  (Erwinaze), clofarabine (Clolar), cyclophosphamide,
  cytarabine, daunorubicin (Cerubidine),doxorubicin
  (Adriamycin), L-asparaginase (Elspar),
  liposomal vincristine (Marqibo), mercaptopurine
  (Purinethol), methotrexate (Trexall), pegaspargase
  (Oncaspar), prednisone, teniposide (Vumon),
  vincristine (Oncovin)
• Immunotherapy: blinatumomab (Blincyto)
• Radiation therapy
• High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation
• Targeted therapy: dasatinib (Sprycel), imatinib
  (Gleevec), ponatinib (Iclusig)

Acute precursor B-cell (pre-B-cell) lymphoblastic leukemia

• Fast-growing
• Excess of B-cell
  lymphoblasts
• Chemotherapy: cyclophosphamide,
  daunorubicin (Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Adriamycin),
  L-asparaginase (Elspar), pegaspargase (Oncaspar),
  vincristine sulfate (Marqibo)
• Immunotherapy: blinatumomab (Blincyto),
  tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah)
• Targeted therapy: inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa)

Acute T-cell (lymphoblastic) leukemia (T-cell ALL)

• Fast-growing
• Excess of T-cell
  lymphoblasts in bone
  marrow
• Chemotherapy: cyclophosphamide,
  daunorubicin (Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Adriamycin),
  L-asparaginase (Elspar), nelarabine (Arranon),
  pegaspargase (Oncaspar), prednisone, vincristine
  sulfate (Marqibo)
• High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation

Burkitt acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL)

• Rare
• Fast-growing
• Rapid increase of B-cell
  lymphocytes
• Chemotherapy: cyclophosphamide,
  dexamethasone, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), etoposide
  (Etopophos), methotrexate (Trexall), vincristine sulfate
  (Marqibo)
• High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation

Ph-positive (Philadelphia-positive) ALL

• Has the gene mutation
  BCR-ABL
• Philadelphia chromosome
  present
• Fast-growing
• Abundance of B-cell
  lymphoblasts
• Chemotherapy: cyclophosphamide,cytarabine,
  dexamethasone, doxorubicin (Adriamycin),
  methotrexate (Trexall), vincristine sulfate (Marqibo)
• High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation
• Targeted therapy: dasatinib (Sprycel), imatinib
  (Gleevec), ponatinib (Iclusig)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

• Abnormal myeloblasts
  develop quickly and block
  the production of normal
  bone marrow cells
• Chemotherapy: cyclophosphamide,cytarabine,
  daunorubicin (Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Adriamycin),
  idarubicin (Idamycin)
• Targeted therapy: enasidenib (Idhifa), gemtuzumab
  ozogamicin (Mylotarg), midostaurin (Rydapt)
• Radiation therapy
• High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)

• Abnormal promyelocytes
  accumulate in bone
  marrow
• All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA or Tretinoin), arsenic
  trioxide (Trisenox), idarubicin (Idamycin), hydroxyurea
  (Hydrea)

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL)

• 4 subtypes: smoldering,
  chronic, acute,
  lymphomatous
• Chemotherapy: cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin
  Adriamycin), prednisone, vincristine sulfate (Marqibo)
• Immunotherapy: interferon alfa

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

• Slow-growing
• Excess of abnormal B- or
  T-cell lymphocytes
• Watchful waiting
• Chemotherapy: bendamustine (Bendeka, Treanda),
  chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, fludarabine,
  prednisone
• Radiation therapy
• High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation
• Targeted therapy: alemtuzumab (Campath), ibrutinib
  (Imbruvica), idelalisib (Zydelig), obinutuzumab
  (Gazyva), ofatumumab (Arzerra), rituximab (Rituxan),
  rituximab and hyaluronidase human (Rituxan Hycela),
  venetoclax (Venclexta)

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

• Grows slowly at first
• Affects myeloid cells
• Philadelphia chromosome
  usually present
• Chemotherapy: busulfan (Busulfex),
  cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, hydroxyurea (Hydrea),
  mechlorethamine (Mustargen), omacetaxine (Synribo)
• Immunotherapy: interferon alfa
  (Rituxan)
• High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation
  (only for advanced phases of disease)
• Targeted therapy: bosutinib (Bosulif), dasatinib
  (Sprycel), imatinib (Gleevec), nilotinib (Tasigna),
  ponatinib (Iclusig)

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)

• Elevated number of
  monocytes
• Affects primarily people
  ages 65-75
• Chemotherapy: azacitidine (Vidaza), cytarabine,
  decitabine (Dacogen), hydroxyurea (Hydrea)
• High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL)

• Rare and slow-growing
• Cells appear hairy under
  microscope
• More common in men
• Average age at diagnosis,
  50
• Watchful waiting
• Chemotherapy: chlorambucil, cladribine (Leustatin),
  pentostatin (Nipent), prednisone
• Immunotherapy: interferon alfa, rituximab (Rituxan)

Large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGLL)

• Affects T-cells or NK-cells
• Larger lymphocytes with
  noticeable granules
• Chemotherapy: cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine,
  doxorubicin (Adriamycin), methotrexate (Trexall),
  prednisone

Natural killer cell leukemia (NK)

• Rare
• Aggressive growth of NK-
  cells
• Chemotherapy: cyclophosphamide,
  daunorubicin (Cerubidine), dexamethasone,
  doxorubicin (Adriamycin), L-asparaginase (Elspar),
  methotrexate (Trexall), prednisone
• High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation

Prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL)

• Rare
• Affects B- or T-cell
  lymphocytes
• Numerous immature
  lymphocytes
• Affects primarily people
  ages 65-70
• Chemotherapy: chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide,
  doxorubicin (Adriamycin), fludarabine,
  pentostatin (Nipent), vincristine (Oncovin)
• Immunotherapy: alemtuzumab (Campath)
• High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation

 

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